Swamp Rose Mallow

September 24th, 2020

Hibiscus grandiflorasalso Hibiscus muscheutos

This perennial is a member of the Mallow (Malvaceae) family, which includes herbs, shrubs, and small trees. There are over 85 genera and 1500 species in this family, some of which are okra (edible), cotton (for apparel), and Rose of Sharron (ornamentals).

physical description

The swamp rose mallow can attain a height of 6 feet with large, white or pink (6” – 10” in diameter) flowers. The 5 petals have red to purple centers and numerous stamens. The leaves appear in alternate configuration on the main stem; the leaves themselves are heart-shaped, with a toothed, three-lobed appearance. This species blooms from March through August.

habitat

The swamp rose mallow is found in wet to moist areas often near ditches and other open moist spaces. It requires at least partial shade and wet soils. Originally found only in Florida and Georgia westward to southern Mississippi, the swamp rose mallow, due to human distribution, now is found in many eastern states in the southern and mid-Atlantic areas.

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uses

This species can be used as a specimen plant, especially with its showy large flowers.

It does well in a wet area of the garden and can also function in a moist border location.

interesting information

Our confection, marshmallows, was originally derived from the roots of the marsh mallow or swamp mallow. They were mashed, boiled in water until thick, and then eaten.  Our current confection tastes nothing like marsh mallow.

This plant attracts many different species of bees, particularly as pollinators.

The swamp rose mallow cannot stand drought or near-drought conditions.

The flowers of this plant only last one day, but being so conspicuous, they are a wonderful addition to the garden.

The seeds from the dried flowers can be collected, stored in dry conditions in an envelope over the winter, and then planted in a greenhouse or near a window. They grow to flowering age in 4 – 5 months.

The swamp rose mallow is grown and available in the arboretum of the Reflection Riding Arboretum and Nature Center.

About the Author

Charlie Belin is a retired professor and biological oceanographer. He taught five courses in the University of Georgia system for many years from his home base in Savannah, Georgia.

Charlie loves hiking at Reflection Riding, teaching children about the ecology of the area, and interacting with the Reflection Riding staff. They are GREAT!


shop for native plants!

Our nursery is open for in-person shopping! Come by Tuesday-Friday 9:30-4:00 and Saturday 8:00-1:00. Your purchase supports our mission to reconnect people with nature. Members save 10% on all plant sales.

Planting native helps restore the natural habitat required for beautiful birds, butterflies and other insects to thrive. Plus, native plants are supposed to be here, so they're often more tolerant of neglect, poor soil, and draught.

Posted by Bess Turner  | Category: native plants

Land managers attempting to restore habitat and arrest the loss of biodiversity on a landscape scale must prioritize invasive species control. However, with limited resources and a seemingly endless supply of new invading organisms, we have to prioritize our efforts and deploy resources in the highest-impact areas. 

Recently, we asked supporters like you to document the occurrence of hemlocks and whether or not they showed evidence of infestation by an invasive aphid-like pest called Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, or HWA. That effort saved a significant amount of time that would have been spent hunting for hemlocks. By providing our contractor with a map showing exactly where the trees were located, we estimate that we cut our final cost by over $1,000.

Today, we’re asking for your help identifying and observing Ligustrum sinense, commonly known as “Chinese privet” or just “privet,” as well as annotating the phenology of existing observations on iNaturalist. Introduced in 1852, this species was planted on the grounds of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park as early as 1890 (Faulkner, et al.). The plant became popular as a dense and fast-growing hedge. Unfortunately, privet is still available today through the horticultural trade. 

Before we go further: Not sure what we mean by "phenology"? Here's a quick primer.

We’re excited to be collaborating on a study with UTC to help prioritize privet removal, and as part of that effort we’d like to ask you to contribute in three ways, at least two of which can be done at home (and if you have any privet at your home, all three can be done from home). 

Of course, observations on our property are also very helpful, but are not required for this research. If you do upload any observations on our property, they will be automatically added to our collection project, which now has over 1600 species recorded.

There are three activities that would help our research. Any one of the three can be

  • First, go find some privet! Observe an individual privet plant occurring in nature and upload it along with a location and time to iNaturalist. If you have a smartphone, your camera will upload time and location automatically, but you can also upload photos from any camera and add those details later from your computer. The videos below will show you how to make observations if you haven’t already started with iNaturalist.

How to make an observation on the iNaturalist app.

How to help identify on iNaturalist.

iNaturalist FAQs

  • Second, we also need help with identifications, which you can learn how to do in the video above. 
Here's a direct link to observations that people think is privet but still "needs ID." Keep in mind that you may encounter things that are not privet; the point here is to confirm or improve the community ID. I've pre-filtered to Chattanooga, but you could filter by state, county or a large library of places such at Reflection Riding.
  • Finally, if you have time to kill and an internet connection (Zoom meetings, anyone?), we also need help annotating the phenology (in this case, we’re most concerned with flowering and fruiting). 

The screenshot here shows the "Plant Phenology" tab for this species right now in the United States. Let's get rid of that grey line on the chart!

To do this, just head over to the Ligustrum sinense page, where we currently have 7,539 observations in the United States. 

Click the “Plant Phenology” tab from the main species page to see the existing data, and then click the gear up on the top right and select “Add Annotations for Plant Phenology.” 

You can also just click here to get started.

Once the observations load, click the first one and then click the "Annotations" tab up top. You can also ID from this screen, but it moves faster if you just stick with annotations and use your keyboard's right arrow to move to the next observation.


I recommend using the keyboard shortcuts, which you can find by clicking the keyboard on the bottom left side of the annotations screen. For phenology, the relevant shortcuts are: 

p then n: Add "Plant Phenology: No Evidence of Flowering" annotation
p then l: Add "Plant Phenology: Flowering" annotation
p then r: Add "Plant Phenology: Fruiting" annotation
p then u: Add "Plant Phenology: Flower Budding" annotation

If you’re half the geek I am, you’ll love doing this during your next boring conference call. Over time, we’ll see that grey line of observations without annotations start to go down and eventually go to near zero! 

Of course, if you have time to remove the privet you find, we’d love to hear about that, too! We offer volunteer opportunities and small group experiences where you can learn to identify and remove invasive species. Your observations will help our immediate study, but may also be used by scientists around the world at any time in the future because all of the data generated on iNaturalist is open and freely available to anyone with an idea and an internet connection.

Thanks in advance for the help! If you have any questions or need help, just reach out to our Education Director, Corey Hagen at [email protected] 


Posted by Mark McKnight  | Category: botany, citizen science

American Yellowwood

September 17th, 2020

Cladrastis kentukea

This small to medium-sized tree is a member of the pea (or Fabaceae) family. It has a rather restricted geolocation, including the area bounded by North Carolina, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and Mississippi; it does well in hardiness zones 4 through 8. This might be an excellent shade tree for small to medium yards and gardens.

physical description

The American yellowwood tree can achieve a height of 40 to 60 feet tall, an equal diameter, and a rounded appearance. It has vibrant yellow foliage in the autumn, with hanging clusters of white flowers that bloom in May and that are fragrant during the day. The flowers of this tree only appear every other or every third year, rather than annually.

habitat

While this tree is tolerant to a wide assortment of pH, soil type, moisture and drought conditions, it does best in well-drained, deep soil that is moist and fertile, i.e., has an almost compost-like content.

images

uses

Because of its striking flowers in the spring and its eye-catching foliage in the autumn, American yellowwood is a good selection for a specimen tree to add interest to any garden.

interesting information

The interior wood of this species is a remarkable yellow color.

The branches from this tree tend to break quite frequently.

The American yellowwood tree is susceptible to canker, mildew, root rot and verticillium problems.

Low forking branches should be pruned in the early life of the tree to reduce the breaking and splitting of the tree.  In addition, a 3-inch thick mulch layer from the stem to the drip line should be applied to the ground to ensure a moist root system.

The American yellowwood is grown and available in the arboretum of the Reflection Riding Arboretum and Nature Center.

About the Author

Charlie Belin is a retired professor and biological oceanographer. He taught five courses in the University of Georgia system for many years from his home base in Savannah, Georgia.

Charlie loves hiking at Reflection Riding, teaching children about the ecology of the area, and interacting with the Reflection Riding staff. They are GREAT!

shop for native plants!

Our nursery is open for in-person shopping! Come by Tuesday-Friday 9:30-4:00 and Saturday 8:00-1:00. Your purchase supports our mission to reconnect people with nature. Members save 10% on all plant sales.

Planting native helps restore the natural habitat required for beautiful birds, butterflies and other insects to thrive. Plus, native plants are supposed to be here, so they're often more tolerant of neglect, poor soil, and draught.

Posted by Charlie Belin  | Category: native plants

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